March, 2000

March 1, 2000
One of the most depraved murderers was the wizened cannibal and child killer Albert Fish, who regularly scoured classified ads in his endless search for victims. In 1928, Fish came across a Situation Wanted ad placed by a young man named Edward Budd, who was looking for a summer job in the country. Masquerading as the owner of a big Long Island farm, the monstrous old man visited the Budd household, intending to lure the Budd boy to an abandoned house and torture him to death. Fish altered his plans when he laid eyes on Edward's little sister, a beautiful twelve-year-old girl named Grace. It was the little girl who ended up dead, dismembered, and cannibalized -- and all because her brother's innocent ad brought a monster to their door! (The A to Z Encyclopedia of Serial Killers)

March 3, 2000
Infamous Roman emperor Nero committed his first murder a year after he gained power (in AD 54) when he killed his half-brother Britannicus. Nero hired a famous poisoner called Locusta but the boy was understandably cautious, and had his food sampled by a taster. One day, at a banquet, Britannicus tried a drink after his taster had tried it, found it too hot and asked for water to be added. The water had been poisoned, and Britannicus promptly went into convulsions and died. Nero looked on unconcerned and commented that such attacks often happen to epileptics. (The Mammoth Book of the History of Murder)

March 4, 2000
Natural Selection In Action:
A man attempting to retrieve his hat from Interstate 55 was struck and killed by a sport utility vehicle, state police said. Wendal Glass, 34, whose hometown was not known, was crossing I-55 rear West Memphis with another pedestrian when Glass' hat blew off, police said. When Glass tried to retrieve the hat, he was struck by a vehicle driven by Roger Mayhugh, 46, of Byhalia, Miss. The accident happened about 9:50p.m. Thursday, and Glass was pronounced dead at a Memphis, Tenn., hospital, according to Arkansas police. Mayhugh and a passenger in the vehicle were not injured. (The Associated Press, donated by Justin Meadows)

March 5, 2000
A Pennsylvania woman spent the better part of an hour shopping at a neighborhood grocery store without realizing that a passerby had stuck a knife into her neck, police said Saturday. Darlene Jones, 62, set out from home on foot before 7 a.m. Friday, when a running passerby slapped her on the back of the neck -- or so she thought. She kept on going, as if nothing had happened. Jones walked to the Acme supermarket in the nearby community of Yeadon, just outside Philadelphia, and bought a package of Oreo cookies and a newspaper before making the half-mile return journey to her house. Only after she got home did her daughter notice the handle of a kitchen knife sticking out of her mother's neck. The daughter yanked out the blade, releasing a gush of blood, and quickly got her to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, where she was listed in fair condition Saturday. "Five or six people walked right past her without even noticing," Darby Police Chief Robert Smythe told the Philadelphia Inquirer, while describing the incident as a "random, vicious attack." Supermarket surveillance cameras later showed the woman strolling through the aisles of the store, past clerks and customers, with the knife handle clearly visible. Jones could not give police a description of her assailant, saying she did not even notice if it was a man or a woman. (Reuters, donated by KSHOhio)

March 5, 2000
When he closes his eyes, Dennis Mitchell hears his children screaming, "Daddy, Daddy." And when his eyes are open, the 38-year-old father of six faces a stark reality: His family is gone. "I'm way beyond a nightmare," a dazed Mitchell said Sunday, two days after his children and his wife, Sandy, died in a fiery van crash. "Everything, all that quick, just gone." California Highway Patrol investigators continue to work to determine what happened on that remote stretch of road north of Livermore. So far, they believe that Sandy Mitchell was driving the van. She was probably going faster than the 45 mph speed limit posted on the two-lane road just north of Interstate 580 when a tire likely blew or went flat, sending the van veering across the road where it hit a tree, forcing it back across the road, where it sat on its top and burned. Dennis Mitchell told his brother he heard a noise, possibly a tire being punctured, and then saw trees flash before him. He and his wife managed to kick out their windows and crawl out. Dennis then kicked out a passenger window to rescue his kids. "That's when it exploded," Bryan Mitchell said. "I couldn't help them," Dennis Mitchell said Sunday. "I couldn't get them out." All of them -- Corrina, 15, Jason, 10, Sierra, 9, Amber, 8, Jeri Ann, 6, and Sunny, who would have turned 4 on Sunday -- died along with their mother, Sandy Mitchell, 35. The images haunt Dennis Mitchell, said JoAnn Wright, who is related to the family by marriage. "Every time he tried (to sleep), he heard his children screaming, 'Daddy, Daddy.' He'll have to live with that for the rest of his life." Mitchell, 38, survived suffered minor head and hand injuries. (The Associated Press)

March 7, 2000
Back in the 1930s, a hard-drinking reprobate named Joe Ball ran a seedy roadhouse named (ironically enough) the Sociable Inn on Highway 181 outside Elmsdorf, Texas. Behind this rowdy dive, Ball installed a cement pond and stocked it with a brood of five full-grown alligators. To keep his pets fat and happy, Ball fed them a diet of horse meat, live dogs, and human body parts - the remains of various female employees he murdered and dismembered. The exact number of his victims remains unknown, since Ball went to his death without confessing. When two sheriffs who were investigating the disappearance of a pretty young waitress named Hazel Brown showed up to question the brutish barkeep, he whipped out a pistol from the drawer beneath his cash register and fired a bullet into his heart. (The A to Z Encyclopedia of Serial Killers)

March 8, 2000
A 26-year-old South African woman who used a breadknife and a pair of scissors to perform an amateur caesarian section on a teen-ager appeared in court on Tuesday (March 7, 2000) charged with attempted murder. "I believe she will be sent for psychiatric observation today," investigating officer Captain Dyson Jacobs told Reuters. The bizarre case was discovered by a group of children late last week when they stumbled across the profusely-bleeding 16-year-old and the older woman clutching the new born baby behind some bushes on the crime and poverty-ridden Cape Flats. The children alerted police who rushed the young girl to hospital suffering from shock and acute loss of blood. Doctors later carried out a hysterectomy to remove her severely lacerated uterus. She told police she had become friends with the woman, who had already suffered three miscarriages, and had gone to her home where she was tied up, gagged, stripped and ripped open under threat of death and without any drugs or anesthetics. Police were working on several theories including Satanism and the attempted theft of the premature baby by the jealous older woman. A spokeswoman for Groote Schuur hospital said the mother was in a stable condition and doing well, while her baby boy was in a satisfactory condition. (Reuters, donated by Art Aiello and GopherbrokE)

March 9, 2000
When Roman Emperor Nero ascended the throne, in AD 54, he was only seventeen and could not legally rule in his own name. His mother, Agrippina, acted as his regent and was a powerful controlling influence on him even after he had reached the age of eighteen and could govern in his own right. For the first time in Roman history, a woman was given the title of AVGVSTA, meaning "empress", and her portrait appeared on coins with that of her son. Nero grew to resent his motherís strong hand in controlling his life and plotted to end her life. He sent his mother out on the Bay of Naples in a ship. An accident was to be staged in which part of the ship would collapse and pitch her into the sea, but the accident was bungled and she escaped with only a hurt shoulder. A woman friend who had been with her was also thrown into the water. The woman began crying out that she was the emperorís mother, either hoping that she would be rescued or trying to protect Agrippina. When Agrippina saw some of the shipís crew clubbing her to death in the water instead, the tough old mother of Nero swam to safety in spite of her wounded shoulder. She returned home, believing that Nero would not dare to murder her now that so many people knew about the plot. Agrippina played it cool until the very end. Nero sent an ex-slave and a group of naval officers whom he could trust to complete the foul deed to finish her off with clubs and swords in her bed, to which she had retired to recuperate from her injury. As one of the men drew his sword, she presented her belly and told him to strike her there -- in the womb that had borne Nero. She was hacked to pieces. (The Mammoth Book Of The History Of Murder)

March 10, 2000
A riot at Manitoba, Canada's Headingly Prison was sparked off by a routine contraband search on Thursday April 25, 1996, during which a set of keys was snatched from one of the guards. 200 prisoners embarked on an orgy of violence. Sex-offenders' genitals were hacked off with kitchen utensils and one had his fingers slowly cut off with a scalpel. The guards sensibly retreated, although one remained hidden in the riot zone, cowering under a desk. After looting the hospital pharmacy, drug-deranged rioters torched mattresses, blankets and clothing in an 18-hour inferno leaving a damages bill of about 1.5 million. Nobody died in the riot, although one guard required 100 stitches to a vicious head wound. What was shocking was that Headingly was a medium-security institution housing prisoners serving sentences of less than two years. (Bizarre Magazine)

March 11, 2000
The case histories of serial killers are rife with instances of juvenile animal torture. As a boy, for example, Henry Lee Lucas enjoyed trapping small animals, torturing them to death, then having sex with the remains. The earliest sexual activity of the appalling Peter Kurten -- the "Monster of Dusseldorf" -- also combined sadism with bestiality. At thirteen, Kurten discovered the pleasures of stabbing sheep to death while having intercourse with them. (The A to Z Encyclopedia of Serial Killers)

March 12, 2000
Believe it or not, there are people who dive into the ocean for a refreshing swim every New Year's Day. It's called a Polar Bear swim, and it's just a crazy ritual to most of us. Anyone who has seen the film Titanic, or read a book about Eskimos, knows that icy water brings on rapid hypothermia and death. But our hero Adrian, studying for his doctorate in Forestry, was not one to heed such trivial concerns. This 38-year-old man was enjoying a hockey game with friends on Kingsmere Lake when he attempted a Polar Bear swim between holes cut two meters apart on the lake. He dove in at 1:30 AM and failed to resurface. It is common knowledge that it is nearly impossible to find a small hole in the ice once you've slid beneath the surface. Particularly when you are suffering from the effects of hypothermia: low blood pressure, confusion, and weakness. Frantic friends jumped in but were unable to find him. They aimed car headlights at the hole to help Adrian find his way back, but to no avail. "The water was only waist deep," said the man's brother. "He must have gotten disoriented." Adrian's frigid body was recovered Saturday by firefighters, not far from the ice hole that tempted him to his doom. ()

March 13, 2000
Doctors have found that the Virginia woman who allegedly killed her infant son in a microwave is competent to stand trial, but a New Kent County Circuit Court judge today ordered a neurological evaluation to determine whether the woman's epilepsy could have rendered her legally insane at the time of the incident. In a 15-minute hearing, Judge Thomas B. Hoover accepted a competency report that said Elizabeth Renee Otte, 20, is mentally able to stand trial on a charge of first-degree murder. Although the psychiatric evaluation found Otte to be sane, doctors are unsure whether Otte's diagnosed epilepsy could have caused her to be disoriented at the time she allegedly placed her son in a household microwave. Joseph Lewis Martinez, 1 month old, was found dead in the microwave in Lanexa, Va., on Sept. 23. Otte told friends that she had an epileptic seizure and that she did not remember the incident. Commonwealth's Attorney C. Linwood Gregory said he expects medical experts to report that the infant was in the running microwave oven for more than two minutes, based on a 1987 study on the effects of microwave radiation on living tissue and the similarity of his burns to those suffered by children in two other cases. In neither of the two cases did the injuries result in death. Gregory said one theory--that Otte thought she was warming a bottle of milk--is unlikely because of the time the oven was on. "It doesn't take nearly two minutes to warm a bottle," he said. Doctors and epilepsy experts are divided on whether Otte's disorder could have caused her to kill her son inadvertently. Some contend that an epilepsy defense is often misused to excuse violent acts. Others say certain types of seizures could offer an explanation. (The Washington Post, donated by Desi)

March 16, 2000
On the night of May 23, 1918, a New Orleans couple named Maggio was butchered in bed by an intruder who smashed their skulls with an axeblade, then slit their throats with a razor, nearly severing the woman's head. Thus began the reign of terror of the so-called "Axeman of New Orleans," a real-life boogeyman who haunted the city for two and a half years. His MO was always the same: Prowling through the darkness, he would target a house, chisel out a back-door panel, slip inside, and find his way to the bedroom. There, he would creep toward his slumbering victims, raise his weapon, and attack with demoniacal fury. Altogether, he murdered seven people and savagely wounded another eight. Though the killer was never identified, some people believe that he was an ex-con named Joseph Mumfre, who was shot down by a woman named Pepitone, the widow of the Axeman's last victim. Mrs. Pepitone claimed that she had seen Mumfre flee the murder scene. Whether Mumfre was really the Axeman remains a matter of dispute, but one fact is certain: the killing stopped with his death. (The A to Z Encyclopedia of Serial Killers)

March 17, 2000
St. Patrick's Day Special:
The Irish Famine (1846-1850) began with a blight of the potato crop that left acre upon acre of Irish farmland covered with black rot. As harvests across Europe failed, the price of food soared. Subsistence-level Irish farmers found their food stores rotting in their cellars, the crops they relied on to pay the rent to their British and Protestant landlords destroyed. Peasants who ate the rotten produce sickened and entire villages were consumed with cholera and typhus. Parish priests desperate to provide for their congregations were forced to forsake buying coffins in order to feed starving families, with the dead going unburied or buried only in the clothes they wore when they died. Landlords evicted hundreds of thousands of peasants, who then crowded into disease-infested workhouses. Other landlords paid for their tenants to emigrate, sending hundreds of thousands of Irish to America and other English-speaking countries. But even emigration was no panacea -- shipowners often crowded hundreds of desperate Irish onto rickety vessels labeled "coffin ships." In many cases, these ships reached port only after losing a third of their passengers to disease, hunger and other causes. While Britain provided much relief for Ireland's starving populace, many Irish criticized Britain's delayed response -- and further blamed centuries of British political oppression on the underlying causes of the famine. The Irish Famine took as many as one million lives from hunger and disease. (The Irish Famine, 1845-50)

March 18, 2000
A Pakistani man was sentenced to death Thursday (3/16/00) for murdering 100 children in this country's worst-ever serial killing. Judge Allah Baksh Ranja ordered 42-year-old Javed Iqbal to be publicly executed in a Lahore park, saying his body "will then be cut into a 100 pieces and put in acid the same way you killed the children." Public punishments are not common in Pakistan, where death sentences are usually hangings carried out inside jails. Ranja also sentenced Iqbal to 700 years in prison for destroying evidence - seven years for each of the 100 bodies that Iqbal is said to have destroyed by dissolving them in acid. "Your honor, I am innocent," Iqbal declared after hearing the judge convict and sentence him. As he was being led out of court, Iqbal told reporters he didn't kill anyone. His lawyer planned to appeal the verdict. The appeal process could last years. Iqbal initially confessed to the killings in a letter to police last year. He said he strangled the children, dismembered their bodies and placed them in a vat of acid. He later recanted his confession. In his letter, Iqbal directed officials to his home, where they found a blue vat in which the remains of two bodies were found. Police found pictures of 100 children whom Iqbal in his letter confessed to having killed. They also found clothes belonging to the young victims. (The Associated Press, donated by Bruce Townley and Johnny Styles)

March 19, 2000
In AD 61, during the reign of Roman Emperor Nero, the prefect of the city had been murdered by one of his slaves - probably in a homosexual quarrel - and law decreed that every slave under the same roof be executed, including women and children. The populace rioted on behalf of the unfortunate slaves - four hundred of them - and Nero, who was a liberal in theory, agreed entirely with the people. The senate felt otherwise. They were afraid that, if murder by slaves was tolerated, they might all be murdered in their beds. So soldiers had to line the route when the four hundred men, women, and children were taken to execution. (The Mammoth Book Of The History Of Murder)

March 20, 2000
During the period of December 4-8, 1952, a killer fog descended upon London, killing more than 4,000 people and injuring thousands more. The deadly smog was brought on by a combination of thick fog and extremely cold temperatures for several days, which caused the townspeople to burn coal to heat their homes. The inversion layer - very cold air trapped near the ground by a layer of warmer air - trapped the coal smoke, forming a choking, billowing, poisonous smog. The smog was so thick that people were having difficulty finding their way, with some reports of people wandering onto railroad tracks or into the river. By the third day of the fog, doctors had witnessed hospitals swamped with people complaining of respiratory distress. The first people to begin dying were the very young and very old, especially those with heart disease or respiratory disorders. Many died suddenly, with no warning at all. There were few places to escape to. Once the fog dispersed, the sky brightened and temperature and humidity returned to normal seasonal levels, but afflicted people kept dying. The grisly proof that many didn't recover from the fog was the booming profits cemeteries made during that fatal December. People queued up in long lines just to register deaths, and a 10-day wait before burial was common in most London cemeteries. The crematories worked to capacity and some morgues even ran out of shrouds to cover the corpses. (The People's Almanac #2)

March 21, 2000
On the morning of December 12, 1799, George Washington mounted his horse as usual and rode out to inspect his Mount Vernon plantation. The weather was cold and wet, and the 67-year-old former President received a thorough chill. The next day, he had come down with a severe sore throat and he called for the assistance of a doctor. The first doctor to arrive was James Craik, a close friend of Washington. Craik tried "two copious bleedings," a cantharides blister, two doses of calomel, and an unspecified "injection," which "operated on the lower intestines." The patient, who was probably suffering from tonsillitis or diphtheria, continued to breathe with great difficulty. Two more physicians arrived that afternoon, and in true 18th century fashion, the trio of doctors proved three times as lethal as a single one. They bled Washington yet again, this time removing a full quart. Vinegar, the all-purpose remedy, was inhaled in a vapor mixed with steam. Additional calomel and "repeated doses of emetic tartar" produced nothing more promising than "a copious discharge from the bowels". With the patient's life slipping away, the desperate physicians applied another set of blisters as well as a "cataplasm" made of bran and the inevitable vinegar to his throat. At this point, the wheezing former President expressed a desire to be permitted to die without interruption, passing away about an hour before midnight on December 14th. Even in death, Washington was not safe from the strenuous but ineffective medical science of his day. The architect and inventor William Thornton rushed to Mount Vernon and proposed to revive Washington by rubbing his skin, blowing air into his lungs, and transfusing him with lamb's blood. Friends of the deceased President barred Thornton from carrying out his experiment. (American Heritage)

March 22, 2000
In 1992 Andrei Chikatilo, the Rostov Ripper, was found guilty of 52 murders. In an eight-year orgy of killing, he raped and killed 21 boys, 14 girls and 17 women. Before burying the bodies in woodland, according to the judge at his trial, he would "torture his victims by biting out their tongues, tearing away their sexual organs and cutting their bellies open". Chikatilo was psychologically and sexually inadequeate, although he did eventually marry and have children. He was humiliated at work and treated with contempt by his wife and children. At the age of 37 he was already on the slippery slope that would lead to murder. When summing up, the Rostov judge described the classic serial killer profile, "by killing defenseless victims he not only satisfied his sexual demands but also affirmed his power". Chikatilo was executed by firing squad on St. Valentine's Day, 1994. (Crimes And Punishment: The Illustrated Crime Encyclopedia, Volume 23)

March 25, 2000
For obvious reasons, bathtubs make a handy place to dismember corpses. After picking up a female hitchhiker in January 1973, for example, serial killer Edmund Kemper drove her into the hills near Watsonville, where he forced her into the trunk and shot her with his new gun. The bullet lodged in her skull. Edmund had recently moved back in with his mother, so he brought the body to the duplex in Aptos and into his room there, and when his mother left for work the next morning he had sex with Cindy's corpse. He dissected her in the bathtub, taking great care afterward to wash away all traces of what heíd done. He removed the bullet from her skull and buried the head in his motherís back yard. Later he threw the body parts, which he put in plastic bags, off a cliff. (The Crime Library)

March 26, 2000
In 540, the Roman Empire was devastated by the Plague Of Justinian, which may have been the most terrible plague that has ever harrowed the world. It started at Pelusium in Lower Egypt, spreading throughout Egypt to Alexandria and to Palestine. It reached Byzantium in the spring of 542. The mortality was not at first great but rapidly rose until some 10,000 died each day. So many were the deaths that graves could not be dug sufficently quickly. Roofs were taken off the towers of forts, the towers filled with corpses and the roofs replaced. Ships were loaded with the dead, rowed out to sea and abandoned. This sickness was undoubtedly bubonic plague. Victims were seized with sudden fever; on the first or second day buboes, swollen glands, appeared in the groin or armpit. Many patients became deeply comatose, others developed a violent delirium in which they saw phantoms or heard voices prophesying death; sometimes the buboes broke down into gangrenous sores and sufferer died in terrible pain. Death usually occurred on the fifth day, but could be very quick or delayed for a week or two. (Disease And History)

March 27, 2000
The bodies of 153 sect members were found on March 24, strangled and hacked to death in a mass grave in western Uganda near a church where hundreds perished in a fire, police said. The bodies, which included 59 children, were discovered as police continue to investigate the deaths of at least 330 members of the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments, who were burned alive in a sect compound 20 miles away in remote southwestern Uganda. Police said they were now treating all the deaths as mass murder. "It was definitely murder," police spokesman Assuman Mugenyi told The Associated Press. The March 17 fire was set at a makeshift church belonging to the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God. The estimated death toll in the blaze has ranged from 150 to 600, and the cause has been attributed to gasoline, a bomb or both. There have been conflicting reports about the willingness of some sect members to commit suicide. Various reports put sect membership anywhere between 1,000 and 5,000 in nine districts in Uganda, a country of 21 million. It was a legally registered as a non-governmental organization. (The Associated Press, donated by Bruce Townley and Skampirella)

March 28, 2000
On July 4, 1874 the Eads Bridge in St. Louis was ceremonially inaugurated. The bridge consisted of three arches, each with a span of more than 500 feet, at a time when anything longer thatn 350 feet was thought to be unsafe. The controversial design worked because to anchor the bridge in the Mississippi's muddy bottom, the designer, James Buchanan Eads, had sunk its piers all the way down to bedrock, 100 feet or more below the river's swirling surface. The extra-deep piers had been excavated with caissons - sealed chambers with no floor, filled with compressed air, that sat on the riverbed as workers dug out the sand. As the caissons penetrated farther and farther below the surface, they required greater and greater air pressures inside. The technology was new to America and dignitaries visiting the pressurized chambers laughed as they tried unsuccessfully to whistle or blow out candles. Workers were less amused when they started feeling intense pains in their limbs and joints upon returning to the surface. The mysterious "caisson disease," nowadays known as the bends, ended up killing fourteen workers and sending scores more to the hospital. By the time the digging ended, doctors had found that the disease could be mitigated by depressurizing slowly after workers left the chamber. Still, the ailment was poorly understood, and the physiological cause - nitrogen bubbles in the bloodstream, clogging capillaries - would not be appreciated for decades. Many wokrers on the Brooklyn Bridge would also be severely disabled by caisson disease. (American Heritage)

March 30, 2000
British climber Brummie Stokes and a partner survived an open-air bivouac after climbing the summit of Everest in 1976, but were badly frostbitten. When Stokes arrived back in England, he consulted with a doctor regarding his severely frostbitten toes. The doctor saw it was clear there would need to be amputation of the toes, but he advised that they should wait for two months to see which tissue was going to die off and which could be saved. The summer of 1976 was a particularly hot one, and pretty soon, as the toes started to get blacker and to separate from the good flesh, they also began to smell terribly. After the first month, tiny maggots began eating at the dead tissue between the frostbite that had gone hard and healthy flesh on Stokes' feet. A gap was appearing between the two that began to expose the bones of the by-now dead toes. One evening Stokes' friends invited him to a party, and during its course a nurse in attendance asked to see the frostbitten toes. As he removed his dressings, the audience reeled from the smell of rotten flesh. The nurse was unfazed and asked about the maggots and whether she could touch the toes so she could know what they felt like. By now the toes were all hard and wrinkled and completely dead. She reached down to squeeze the big toe and Stokes felt a sharp pain shooting up through his ankle. He looked down to see her fainting at his feet. She had tweaked the big toe hard and it had crumbled away in her fingers. It was laying on the carpet - although not for long. The dog saw to that. Two more girls fainted and several people were sick. It was horribly embarrassing for Stokes - but at least he got most of the curry to himself! In the end, Stokes ended up losing half of both his feet to the frostbite. (High: Stories Of Survival From Everest And K2)

March 31, 2000
In the past, many so-called "werewolves" were, in fact, sadistic sex maniacs who were suffering from insane delusions. In the Dole area in 1573, there were a number of cases of savage attacks on children. Gilles Garnier, an unsociable peasant who lived with his wife in a dilapidated hut, was arrested, and confessed to being the "wolf" responsible for the outrages. At his trial Garnier gave details of other similar attacks. One of them was made on a ten-year-old girl, whom he stripped and ate; (he said he enjoyed the flesh so much that he took some of it home to his wife); another on a twelve-year-old boy, whom he was prevented from eating by the approach of strangers. Shortly before his arrest, he claimed, he had strangled a ten-year-old boy and eaten part of his body. Garnier's confessions were believed and he was duly burned alive. (Crimes and Punishment: The Illustrated Crime Encyclopedia, Volume 28)